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History of the Polygraph

The Polygraph (Lie Detector) is a scientific instrument capable of simultaneously recording changes in several physiological variables while the subject is asked a series of questions pertaining to a specific issue under investigation. The charts generated during the polygraph examination are interpreted by a polygraph examiner.

The polygraph invented by John Augustus Larson (1892-1965) of the United States of America in 1921, is considered officially one of the greatest inventions of all time. The literal meaning of the word "polygraph" is "many writings" (Polys (Gr.) – many and Grapho (Gr.) – write).

The problem of detecting lies has always concerned humans; therefore, the history of the polygraph, also know as the lie detector, has very deep roots. In ancient China dry rice was commonly utilized as a lie detector. The Chinese believed that salivation ceased at times of emotional anxiety such as a strong fear. An "examiner" had a suspect hold a handful of dry rice in his mouth while he was asked a series of relevant questions. After questioning, the rice was examined. If it was dry, the suspect was declared to be a liar. This means of deception detection was more advanced than a subjective evaluation of a suspect by a tribe chief. As was assumed then – and is currently supported by more recent evidence – the nervous tension created by lying slowed or blocked the flow of saliva.

Another, more informative method of detecting deception with some psychological validity, involved a donkey. Around 1500 BC Indian priests saturated a donkey's tail with carbon residue from an oil lamp and placed the animal in a dark tent. The suspects were sent into the tent and told that pulling the "magic" donkey's tail would reveal the liar (if a guilty man pulls his tail, the donkey will bray). When the suspects came out, the priests examined their hands. Those with clean hands had not touched the donkey's tail. It was assumed that this was due to many suspects’ fear of their guilt being discovered, proving they were liars. Variations of this test were also used by Chinese and Arabs.

A more rigid approach of detecting the truth was used in ancient Sparta. Before being admitted to certain schools Spartan young men were required to pass the selection criteria. The young men were ordered to stand on the edge of a cliff, and were asked if they were afraid. The answer was always negative; however its integrity was determined by the men’s complexion. It was concluded that the pale young men lied and they were pushed from the cliff.

In Ancient Rome bodyguard screening was conducted using a similar method. Bodyguard candidates were asked provocative questions. Those who blushed were selected for the job. It was believed that if a person blushed in response to provocative questions, he would not participate in plots.

African tribes have utilized their own method of detecting a guilty person. While performing a special dance around a suspected individual, a sorcerer intensely sniffed him. The "investigator" made a conclusion whether the suspect committed the crime based upon the intensity of his body odor (smell).

During the Middle Ages a suspect's pulse rate readings were collected for determining his or her guilt. This method was employed for exposing unfaithful wives and their lovers. The testing technique was very simple. A trained individual placed a finger on a wrist of a woman suspected of infidelity, while mentioning names of the men, who could have had an intimate relationship with her. The examinee's pulse accelerated when she heard and, consequently, reacted to the name of her lover.

In West Africa persons suspected of a crime were made to hold and pass a bird's egg to one another. The person breaking the egg was considered guilty, based on the notion that his or her tremor-eliciting nervousness was to blame.

Only at the end of the 18th century were conditions conducive to developing technical means of detecting deception, subsequently named: lie detector, variograph, polygraph, emotional stress monitor, deceptograph, to name a few. Currently, polygraph and lie detector are the most widely used names in the world.

The earliest attempt at a scientific approach to the development of diagnostic instrumentation for lie detection dates circa 1875, when the Italian physiologist, Angelo Mosso (1846-1910), began studies of fear and its influence on the heart and respiration. The fear of being detected was considered an essential element of deception. Through his research Mosso demonstrated that blood pressure, blood volume, and pulse frequency changed depending on changes in emotions of a tested subject. From records of pulsation, Mosso was able to distinguish persons who were afraid from those who were tranquil. Mosso devised several types of Plethysmographs (Plethysmos (Gr.) – enlargement, increase and Grapho (Gr.) – write, record) – instruments for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains).

In 1879, the French electrotherapy specialist, Dr. Marie Gabriel Romain Vigouroux (1831-1911) was first to discover the phenomenon we now know as Electrodermal Response - human body phenomenon in which the body, mainly the skin, involuntarily changes resistance electrically upon the application of certain external stimuli. Dr. Vigouroux described his empirical study of electrical changes in human skin in his 1879 article "Sur le Role de la Resistance Electrique des Tissues dans l'Electrodiagnostic".

Among other distinguished scientists contributing to the electrodermal response research are: the Georgian – Ivan R. Tarchanoff (1846-1908), the French – Charles Samson Fere (1852-1907), the German – Georg Sticker (1860-1960), and the Swiss – Otto Veraguth (1870-1944).

An American psychopathologist, psychologist and psychiatrist influential in the early 20th century, Boris Sidis (1867-1923), also played an important role in the electrodermal response investigation. Dr. Sidis was born in Berdychiv, Ukraine on October 12, 1867, in a family of Ukrainian Jews and immigrated to the USA in 1887. He taught psychology at Harvard University.

In 1908 Dr. Boris Sidis conducted "A Study of Galvanic Deflections Due to Psycho-Physiological Phenomena" published in the Psychological Review for September 1908 and January 1909. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation of emotions and physiological activities to galvanometric deflections. They concluded that the observed galvanometric changes were caused by physiological processes concomitant with the mental states aroused by the stimuli. On December 28, 1909 Dr. Sidis read his speech, "The Nature and Cause of the Galvanic Phenomenon", before the American Psychological Association, Harvard University.

In 1895 an Italian physician, psychiatrist and pioneer criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was the first to experiment with a device, measuring blood pressure and pulse, to detect deception in criminal suspects and noted increased blood pressure following relevant questions when put to some subjects. He called it a Hydrosphygmograph. In 1895 Dr. Lombroso published the second edition of "L'Homme Criminel" ("The Criminal Man"). It documents his use of a plethysmograph and sphygmomanometer during the interrogation of criminal suspects. Seven years later, in 1902, for the first time in court history, a mechanical device helped to prove the innocence of the person accused of committing a crime.

An Italian psychologist, Vittorio Benussi (1878-1927), at the University of Graz, announced that liars are betrayed by their breathing. The work of Benussi, reported in 1914, reflects another step toward the current technique utilizing respiration changes as a criterion of deception. His work concerned the so-called I/E ratio (inspiration-expiration ratio). Benussi measured and recorded breathing by means of an instrument known as the Pneumograph (Pneuma (Gr) – air, breath and Grapho (Gr.) – write, record). Benussi found that the length of inspiration (I) divided by the length of expiration (E) was greater before telling the truth than afterward, but the I/E ratio was greater after lying than before telling the lie.

The first polygraph (lie detector), suitable for use in criminal investigations, was invented in 1921 by John Augustus Larson (1892-1965) a medical student at the University of California and a police officer of the Berkeley Police Department (Berkeley, California, USA). Dr. Larson, born in Shelbourne, Nova Scotia, Canada, was the first to simultaneously record more than one physiological parameter with the purpose of detecting deception. Dr. Larson developed and utilized the continuous method of concurrently registering changes in pulse rate, blood pressure, and respiration.

In conjunction with his polygraph, Dr. Larson used a test/a scientific procedure originated by Dr. William Moulton Marston (1893-1947) in the Harvard Psychological Laboratory in 1915 and applied by him to various fields of investigation during World War I. Dr. Larson modified Dr. Marston's procedure and applied it to the police procedure at the Berkeley Police Department beginning in 1921. Larson developed an interviewing technique, called the R/I (relevant/irrelevant) procedure. Throughout questioning, he would sprinkle questions relevant to the crime and questions that had nothing to do with it.

The polygraph, invented by Dr. Larson in 1921, is considered officially one of the greatest inventions of all time, and is included in the Encyclopaedia Britannica Almanac 2003’s list of 325 greatest inventions.

Leonarde Keeler (1903-1949), born in North Berkeley, California, USA, is the most prominent polygraph examiner of all times. Having conducted over 30,000 polygraph examinations, Leonarde Keeler was one of the world's foremost scientific criminologists, whose contribution to the stature of the field of lie detection is merely immeasurable and invaluable.

In 1925, Leonarde Keeler (a Stanford University psychology major working at the Berkeley Police Department), developed two significant improvements to Larson's polygraph: a metal bellows (tambour) to better record changes in blood pressure, pulse and respiration patterns, and a kymograph, which allowed chart paper to be pulled under the recording pens at a constant speed.

In 1936, Keeler added a third physiological component to his polygraph – the Psychogalvanometer – a device for measuring changes in a person’s skin resistance. This version of Keeler's polygraph was the prototype of the modern polygraph, and Keeler himself is therefore considered the "father of modern polygraph". In addition to improving the polygraph, Keeler is also credited with numerous contributions to polygraph examination technique.

Leonarde Keeler invented the famous Keeler Polygraph, for which he received a patent in 1931. It became the most widely used polygraph in the world for the next three decades. The Keeler Polygraph was actively utilized at the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory at Northwestern University (Chicago), which was headed by Keeler between 1936 and 1938. By 1935 Keeler had conducted polygraph examinations on approximately 2000 criminal suspects.

In 1948 Leonarde Keeler founded the Keeler Polygraph Institute, located on Ohio Street in Chicago – the first polygraph school in the world. The institute trained many prominent people in the field of polygraphy.

The first reference to polygraph application for protecting commercial interests dates back to 1923. American polygraph examiner, Dr. John Larson, proved the polygraph worked when a student was suspected of shoplifting at a local store. The store owner knew that the shoplifter lived in the dormitory but he didn't know who. Dr. Larson offered to give polygraph tests to all of the people who lived in the dormitory; 37 out of 38 tested individuals passed the polygraph examination. The one who didn't pass the test later confessed.

In 1938 the polygraph was used for the first time with the purpose of endorsing a product – in a magazine advertisement endorsing Gillette razor blades. Above mentioned Dr. William Marston accepted a 1938 offer from a Detroit ad agency. In the ad "New Facts about Shaving Revealed by Lie Detector!" Dr. Marston conducted lie detector tests on a select group of people who had tried Gillette and several other razor blade brands. Dr. Marston claimed in the ad that the vast majority preferred Gillette.

In 1944, at the Papago Park, Arizona prisoner of war camp, a captured German submarine crewman was found strangled to death. Investigators could not solve the crime so Leonarde Keeler was called in by Colonel Ralph W. Pierce, who had heard of his work. Keeler was able to pick out seven prisoners, all of whom were said to have then confessed to the murder and were soon executed. Impressed by the outcome, Pierce bought the first Army polygraph for the Chicago Counter-Intelligence Corps School. This marked the first important use of the polygraph by a division of the federal government.

Pierce, Keeler, and other polygraphists made the first use of the polygraph for government security screening purposes in August, 1945, at Fort Getty, Rhode Island where several hundred German prisoners had volunteered for police work with occupation forces in Germany. Several weeks of polygraph examinations screened out a third of the group as pro-Nazi or unsuitable for other reasons.

The success of the polygraph during and after WWII served as a spur to the formation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Polygraph Division in 1948. The US government made a decision to test all CIA employees on the polygraph at least once every five years. The polygraph became an integral part of the CIA's clearance process by mid 1950s. By 1952, the CIA's polygraph program was operating on a worldwide basis.

In 1954, officially, the polygraph was used for general security screening in only three federal government agencies. All three were hush-hush defense agencies: the Operations Research Office (ORO), the CIA, and the National Security Agency (polygraph division founded in 1951). At ORO, all the new employees were tested and all existing workers were polygraphed twice a year.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1963, the federal government carried out 23,122 polygraph tests and the government owned 525 polygraphs. Leading the way in ownership was the Army (261 polygraphs), the Navy (86), the Air Force (72) and the FBI (48). There were 656 authorized polygraph operators in the employ of the government. At that time 24 agencies permitted the use of the polygraph. The figures did not include the use and ownership of the instruments by the CIA (who declined to reveal the numbers), which may have been the most prolific user.

The number of polygraph examiners practicing in the United States has steadily increased over the years: 3000 (1966), 4000 (1979), 6000 (1982), 10000 (1985). Approximately one million Americans were given polygraph tests in 1982. According to the Council of Polygraph Examiners 30 percent of all applicants were rejected by polygraph testing during pre-employment screening in 1967.

American John E. Reid (1910-1982), educated as an attorney, is one of the world's most renowned polygraph examiners and interrogators, and the author of several world-renown books on these subjects. In 1945, Reid developed the Reid Polygraph. Besides recording blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and GSR, this new polygraph recorded muscular activity in the forearms, thighs, and feet thanks to metal bellows placed under the arms and seat of the polygraph chair. The Reid Polygraph was the first instrument to use a movement sensor to detect subject movement during the examination. In 1947, Reid developed a major breakthrough in polygraph technique, the Reid Control Question Technique. He inserted a surprise control question in the relevant/irrelevant technique. Reid is therefore considered the "father of controls".

The President, Director and Chief Instructor of the Backster School of Lie Detection (San Diego, USA), Cleve Backster, has made an enormous contribution to the development of the psychophysiological detection of deception. In 1960, Backster developed the Backster Zone Comparison Technique. He also introduced a qualification system of chart analysis, which standardized chart analysis making it more objective and scientific than before. Backster's concepts have been widely adopted into practice in psychophysiological detection of deception throughout the world.

Polygraph examinations are conducted by polygraph examiners in the private, law enforcement and government sectors in approximately 90 countries. The polygraph is most actively used in the United States of America, Mexico, Israel, Ukraine, Russia, South Africa, Colombia, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Canada, India, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Lithuania, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Australia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, El Salvador, Panama, and Guatemala, to name a few.

The polygraph is most actively used in the United States of America, where millions of polygraph examinations are administered on an annual basis. The list of well known polygraph users in the USA includes: Department of Defense and its many investigative agencies of the Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force, National Security Agency (NSA), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), United States Secret Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Department of Energy, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and numerous other intelligence and federal law enforcement agencies. The polygraph is also used by state and local law enforcement agencies, U.S. and district attorney offices, public defenders, lawyers, parole and probation departments, public and private companies.

Lafayette Instrument Company, located in Lafayette, Indiana, USA, dominates the international polygraph market. Lafayette Instrument Company, founded in 1947 by Max Wastl (1915-1990), has been manufacturing polygraphs since the 1950’s, and is the unconditional global leader in the manufacture and sale of lie detectors. Lafayette Instrument Company polygraph instrumentation is accredited by the leading international polygraph associations and is preferred by polygraph examiners from the 90 countries using polygraphs. Under the stewardship of the company's current owners Christopher L. Fausett, Jennifer D. Rider, and Terrance G. Echard, and past-president Roger B. McClellan, Lafayette Instrument Company has achieved a global polygraph market share of approximately 90 percent. In addition to polygraphs, Lafayette Instrument Company is also a world-renowned manufacturer of laboratory instrumentation.

In 1973 Lafayette Instrument Company revolutionized the lie detection market by creating the first polygraph (PGS) in the world that embodied the wishes of all polygraph examiners. In 2007 Lafayette Instrument Company invented the first wireless computerized polygraph in the world (LX5000-SW) and in 2008 developed the ultramodern portable lie detector (PCASS) for the Pentagon. Their currently manufactured computerized polygraph LX4000-SW is the most reliable and popular lie detector on the planet. Moreover, under the stewardship of its experienced scientist-polygraph examiner, dubbed by the experts "the future of lie detection", Lafayette Instrument Company heads the creation of progressive and valid scoring algorithms.

In the USSR the research on the psycho-physiological diagnostic instrumentation methods in criminal investigations began in the 1920s. The initiator of this research was a Soviet neuropsychologist, Alexander R. Luria (1902-1977). He used reaction time measures to study thought processes and developed a psychodiagnostic procedure he referred to as the "combined motor method" for diagnosing individual subject's thought processes.

In the USSR the first positive results of the motor method application in practice were published in 1927-28. However, the possibility of using this and other methods in criminal investigations was criticized and disapproved of by Soviet authorities. As a result, the development of polygraph methods was suspended for several decades.

The research in this field was resumed in 1960s, particularly, in two institutes of the USSR Academy of Science. Among researchers who deserve recognition is a famous scientist-neurophysiologist, P.V. Simonov, known for developing a theory of emotions.

Around the same time several lawyers expressed in favor of polygraph application in criminal investigations. On the pages of the press in the second half of the 1970s appeared discussions on this subject, but again their results were not in favor of the polygraph. Subsequently, all research conducted in the Ministry of the Internal Affairs and Public Prosecution Office was suspended.

In the early 1970s, the experience of polygraph application in the West was analyzed by the KGB. The impetus for this analysis was a substantial number of failures of one of the most powerful intelligence services of the Eastern Block – the Eastern German STASI. Even well trained agents were exposed with the help of lie detectors. This immediately became known to the KGB. Consequently, a group for researching the psycho-physiological processes was created in one of the research institutes.

In 1975, upon order from the head of the KGB, Yuriy Andropov, the KGB created a specialized polygraph division headed for approximately fifteen years by Colonel Yuri Azarov and lieutenant colonel Vladimir Noskov. During this period the group proved the effectiveness of the polygraph, trained a group of professional examiners and developed various types of polygraphs. In the mid 1980s the group created several prototypes of a computerized polygraph.

In spite of research in the field of lie detection with use of a polygraph in the capital of the former USSR, it did not impact in any way the development of psychophysiological detection of deception in Ukraine. This fact is confirmed by former KGB agents. Based upon the analysis of Internet materials, and the information obtained from private sources, the year 1997 could be considered the year of birth of lie detection in Ukraine.

According to the newspaper "Segodnya", dated October 17, 1998 (#203), on October 15, 1998, General of the Ministry of Interior of Ukraine, Viktor A. Zubchuk, officially announced before the national media representatives that the Ukrainian police had the lie detector. The newspaper stated that the Ministry acquired the polygraph in 1997 however, but preferred not to publicize that information immediately. The newspaper also confirmed that the polygraph was already utilized by the Security Service of Ukraine, and by several commercial firms.

In May of 1997 Oleksandr M. Volyk was the first Ukrainian citizen to visit Lafayette Instrument Company. This initial visit led to the creation of the Ukrainian lie detection firm, ARGO-A, and has served as the impetus for the development of Ukraine’s polygraph market. ARGO-A, founded by Dr. Andriy M. Volyk, is the authorized representative of Lafayette Instrument Company polygraphs in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. ARGO-A is Lafayette Instrument Company's No. 1 polygraph dealer in Europe and No. 3 polygraph dealer internationally.

Currently, Dr. Andriy Volyk (PhD) – is one of the most experienced and well-known polygraph examiners in Europe, and is the most frequently mentioned and quoted polygraph examiner by the media worldwide. Dr. Volyk has administered thousands of polygraph examinations for law enforcement agencies, private companies, and private citizens from more than 30 countries. Dr. Andriy Volyk, in collaboration with the Indiana Polygraph Institute (USA) and the Chicago Polygraph Institute (Chicago, USA) has trained hundreds of professional polygraph examiners from Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Dr. Andriy Volyk is an author and the main character of numerous articles and publications on the subject of polygraphy, lie detection, and security as a whole. Millions of radio listeners have frequently heard Dr. Volyk’s voice on well-known international radio stations, and his sagacious comments on the subject of the polygraph (lie detection) have been read by tens of millions of readers on the pages of numerous magazines, newspapers, and internet publications. Moreover, Ukraine’s “Lie Detector Man”, Dr. Andriy Volyk, has conducted polygraph exams for TV shows and films on numerous politicians, stars, and celebrities.

Dr. Andriy Volyk is methodically fulfilling his ambitious dream of converting Ukraine into Europe’s center of the psychophysiological deception detection. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Volyk, Ukraine boasts the world’s largest collection of polygraphs and lie detectors, polygraph photo gallery, and the most extensive polygraph library in Europe.

Polygraph examiners Dr. Andriy Volyk and Oleksandr Volyk are the first Ukrainian graduates of the Arizona School of Polygraph Science (Phoenix, USA) and the Maryland Institute of Criminal Justice (near Washington DC, USA) respectively. These polygraph schools are accredited by the prestigious American Polygraph Association (APA) founded in 1966, and counting over 2600 members in 32 countries. Both polygraph examiners are members of the International League of Polygraph Examiners and are Associate Members of the APA. In addition, Dr. Andriy Volyk is Ukraine's first graduate of the Indiana Polygraph Institute and the Chicago Polygraph Institute.

The provision of private lie detection service in Ukraine began in 1997. In 2002 three private companies actively provided services both in the criminological and business environments. All together in 2002 there were only 16 polygraph examiners in Ukraine, and remained practically the same during the next two years.

In 1999 five English-speaking officers from the Kyiv and L'viv Academies of Ukraine's Ministry of Internal Affairs underwent a two-month polygraph examiner training course at the Academy of Forensic Psychophysiology in Largo, Florida, USA. This modernizing effort for Ukrainian law enforcement was initiated by the Ukrainian American Police Association (Chicago, USA).

An American computerized polygraph has been used successfully for several years by the L'viv Law Institute of the Ministry of the Internal Affairs of Ukraine (the first in the Western region of Ukraine). Using a polygraph has helped numerously to quickly obtain reliable information in cases, when obtaining information any other way was extremely difficult or virtually impossible. The polygraph examiners of the institute have helped law enforcement agencies in L'viv and neighboring regions on numerous occasions by testing individuals under criminal investigation. Polygraph tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of polygraph application in solving complex crimes.

On February 13, 2002 political party Nova Heneratsiya (New Generation) announced its intention to propose to all leaders of political parties, participating in the upcoming parliamentary election, to undergo a polygraph examination. On March 7, 2002 during a press conference, the leader of New Generation, Mr. Myroshnychenko, took a polygraph test. He answered truthfully 14 out of 15 questions. Mr. Myroshnychenko sent invitations to undergo a polygraph test to 22 political parties and 6 politicians individually. Leader of New Generation called on TV channels to utilize polygraphs during political debates and speeches.

On May 23, 2002, in an interview with the Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (UNIAN) the Head of the Criminal Investigation Department of the Ministry of the Internal Affairs (MIA) of Ukraine, Mr. Volodymyr Yevdokymov, stated that Ukrainian law enforcement agencies utilized 15 lie detectors, which were actively used in the Dnipropetrovsk and Lugansk regions, Kyiv, Donetsk, Cherkasy and the Crimea. Mr. Yevdokymov also confirmed that during the time of the experiment concerning the use of polygraph, which lasted from 2000 until the spring of 2002, law enforcement solved 119 difficult crimes, including kidnapping of a child, 40 murders, 15 armed assaults, found six criminals and four missing citizens.

At the end of 2004, at the pinnacle of the Orange revolution, the interest of Ukrainians in the lie detector had become more intense. The media and politicians would not stop informing or discussing topics regarding the polygraph. Thanks to them, to a large degree, words and word combinations such as lie detector, polygraph, lie detection, and polygraph examiner have become a permanent part of the Ukrainian vocabulary.

During the period between 2004 and 2007 the number of polygraph examiners in Ukraine has increased from almost 20 up to nearly 200. Currently, the Ukrainian polygraph market is one of the largest in the world. Since 2005 Ukraine has led European nations in the purchase of the best polygraphs in the world manufactured by Lafayette Instrument Company.

Among individuals greatly contributing to the development of lie detection in Ukraine is a prominent politician and businessman, Leonid Chernovetskiy. Mr. Chernovetskiy is one of the first Ukrainians to realize the virtues of the lie detector. He has demonstrated his progressiveness by becoming the first major Ukrainian entrepreneur integrating psychophysiological methods of deception detection (using the latest polygraph) in business operations of a large enterprise – his bank (Pravex-Bank).

Mr. Chernovetskiy is an unwavering advocate of using the polygraph in a battle against corruption. In April of 2005 during a press conference Mr. Chernovetskiy offered to finance the purchase of lie detectors for every district government administration in the capital city of Kyiv in order "to make a major contribution to fighting corruption in Kyiv". In March of 2006 Mr. Chernovetskiy, personally, underwent a polygraph examination in front of journalists. He answered honestly several questions regarding bribes. He passed the test, demonstrating his integrity, and stated afterward that he would demand from all Ukrainian politicians to undergo such tests. That same year Mr. Chernovetskiy initiated (the passing of) a legislative norm for the annual testing of all government servants on the polygraph.

Frequent mentioning and contrasting remarks of the polygraph by famous politicians have also been conducive to the development of lie detection in Ukraine. Among such politicians: Leonid Chernovetskiy, Yuliya Tymoshenko, Mykola Tomenko, Oleksandr Omelchenko, Mykhailo Brodskiy, Volodymyr Spivachuk, Vitaliy Klychko, Stepan Poltorak, Yuriy Lutsenko, Petro Poroshenko and many others.

According to the Ukrainian information business portal "Liga" it is possible that the polygraph will be used during court questioning as well as during the pre-court investigation. Ukrainian Member of Parliament, Volodymyr Spivachuk, deserves credit for this initiative. In 2005 Mr. Spivachuk suggested to the Parliament to examine the bill "About the Inclusion of Amendments to Article 289 of the Civil Code of Ukraine." The author of the bill submitted to the Parliament suggested providing law enforcement with the right to interrogate persons of 14 years of age and older with the use of technical devices of medical nature capable of registering the emotional reaction of interrogated subjects to questions. According to the proposed law such interrogations must be conducted only after obtaining a written consent from the interrogated subject, and in cases of interrogation of minors, in the presence of their parents or authorities of law.

On April 15, 2006 Dr. Andrii Volyk of ARGO-A tested a Member of Parliament, Mr. Mykola Tomenko, who voluntarily agreed to undergo a polygraph test to demonstrate publicly his integrity. Mr. Tomenko – a young, prominent politician, one of the leaders of the major political party, Byut, answered truthfully all questions of the polygraph examiner. After the examination Mr. Tomenko declared: "Polygraph testing could be used only with application of experience of the democratic countries. It should be the system of independent evaluation, and exclusively upon voluntary consent of the tested person".

Ukrainian private companies have been actively integrating psychophysiological methods of deception detection into their business operations. For instance, for the last several years, Pravex-Bank, one of the leading banks in Kyiv (Kiev) has been testing its employees’ ability to not disclose confidential information and bank secrets using Lafayette Instrument Company polygraphs.

In his interview to the Ukrainian weekly business magazine Vlast' Deneg in August of 2005 the Vice President of Security of Pravex-Bank, Oleg Kosenko, said that in their bank new employees are subjected to polygraph tests when work will involve bank confidentiality and/or movement of large sums of money; that is those individuals who aspire to occupy crucial positions or those who used to be special services agents. Mr. Kosenko also noted that the result of utilizing polygraphs had exceeded all expectations to such an extent that in 2005 Pravex-Bank purchased additional lie detectors (model LX4000-SW) manufactured by Lafayette Instrument Company.

In April of 2005 Pravex-Bank's insurance company Pravex-Insurance paid 257,000 hryvnias (approximately $51,400) of insurance compensation to the owner of a stolen car after testing him on the polygraph. That was the largest insurance compensation since the beginning of Pravex-Insurance's existence. The insurance case emerged as a result of a car theft. The decision about the insurance compensation was made after an investigation involving a polygraph belonging to Pravex-Bank. The polygraph test results provided exhaustive answers to all questions, which were of interest to the insurance company. The polygraph examination eliminated the need for further investigation. The information verification with the use of the polygraph has been implemented by the insurance company because the insurer often ran into devious owners of automobiles, who orchestrated theft of their cars in order to claim sizable compensations.

The principal polygraph users and clients (private businesses) of the Ukrainian polygraph examiners are banks and insurance companies, oil/natural gas companies, construction companies, media, jewel and diamond manufacturers, casinos and night clubs, meat processing plants and confectionaries, retailers, restaurants and cafes, service industry companies, car dealerships and auto repair shops, security service providers, recruiters, dating and matchmaking agencies, real estate agencies, hotels and motels, software developing companies, private schools, law firms, transportation companies, courier service companies, and cellular service providers.

Recently Ukrainian private citizens have demonstrated a growing interest in polygraph examinations for resolving personal issues. Jealousy is the primary reason private citizens turn to us for lie detection services. They want to prove to their spouses that they are faithful to each other, and/or to determine instances of unfaithfulness.

As a result of a 2005 agreement between ARGO-A and the Chicago Polygraph Institute (Chicago, USA), those who desire to become polygraph examiners (also polygraphist, polygrapher) may undergo polygraph examiner training in Kyiv (Kiev), Ukraine at ARGO-A – Chicago Polygraph Institute's exclusive representative in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

2006 marked the establishment of the International League of Polygraph Examiners (ILPE). The ILPE is a voluntary professional polygraph association composed of highly qualified polygraph examiners in the private, law enforcement and government sectors worldwide, including Ukraine, USA, Israel, Mexico, Russia, etc. Dr. Andriy Volyk is President of the ILPE. The ILPE is the largest polygraph association in Europe.

ARGO-A possesses the largest polygraph library in Europe. The ARGO-A library, established in 1997, has over one thousand (1000) titles of books, news papers, magazines, brochures, catalogs, periodicals, scientific papers, statistical data, Internet publications, and video materials predominantly in the English, Ukrainian, and Russian languages. This is impressive not just by Ukrainian standards, considering the relatively confidential nature of the lie detection field and a rather limited choice of polygraph literature around the world.

ARGO-A has the best collection of ink, thermal, and computerized polygraphs of different generations and brands in the world. The collection includes historic polygraphs manufactured by Lafayette Instrument Company, Stoelting, Associated Research, B & W Associates, Thompson-Metrigraph Instrument Company and others. ARGO-A's library and polygraph collection continue to expand.

In addition, ARGO-A owns the largest polygraph photo gallery in the world, consisting of images of polygraphs, polygraph examiners, scientists, businessmen, law enforcement personnel, making significant contributions in the development of the instrumental psychophysiological deception detection. Among these individuals are: John Larson, William Marston, August Vollmer, Leonarde Keeler, John Reid, Fred Inbau, Angelo Mosso, Marie Gabriel Romain Vigouroux, Ivan Tarkhanov, Alexander Luria, Boris Sidis, Cesare Lombroso, Vittorio Benussi, Cleve Backster, Max Wastl and others.

The ARGO-A polygraph photo gallery also includes posters of famous Hollywood films and original photos of Hollywood actors, “undergoing polygraph examination” in movies, in which the lie detector (polygraph) was used. In addition, the ARGO-A polygraph photo gallery includes originals and copies of images of well-known criminals, politicians, captured by photographers working for major magazines and newspapers during high profile polygraph tests. ARGO-A's library, photo gallery, and polygraph collection continue to expand.

The field of lie detection in Ukraine continues to evolve dramatically, and interest in the polygraph is growing rapidly. For example, a press conference, that took place at the office of ARGO-A on July 12, 2007, attracted approximately 40 representatives of Ukraine's mass-media. Director of ARGO-A, Dr. Andriy Volyk, answered numerous questions from enthusiastic and curious journalists. During a one month period following the press conference, Dr. Volyk appeared on 14 national TV channels, was broadcast by six national radio stations, articles about him and on the subject of lie detection were disseminated by 12 national newspapers and magazines, all major national internet publications, and two principal Ukrainian information agencies.

In recent years, the lie detector (polygraph) has reached unprecedented popularity in the Ukrainian society. For example, Ukraine’s renown polygraph examiner, Dr. Andriy Volyk, has gained celebrity status in Ukraine testing famous people and politicians for popular Ukrainian television shows, such as “Only Truth” (TV Channel “Novy”), “Lie Detector”, “My Beloved, We Murder Children”, “Save Our Family”, and “Battle of Psychics” (TV channel “STB”), “In Black and White” (TV Channel “1+1”), “Facts of the Week” and “Galileo” (TV channel “ICTV”), as well as participating in other programs on well known Ukrainian and foreign TV channels, including: STB, ICTV, Tonis, First National/UT-1, K1, MAXXI TV, NTN, UBR, 24, First Business, Pravo TV, UBC, City, M1, TVI, Channel 5, TRK Kiev, TRK Ukraine, National Television of Belarus, First National Channel (Belarus), Imedi TV (Georgia), Region TV (Georgia), Nova Television (Bulgaria), ATV (Russia), O2TV (Russia), RTR (Russia), ORT (Russia), 1+1, Inter, MTV to name a few.

Millions of radio listeners have heard Dr. Volyk’s voice on: Radio Freedom, Radio-Era, Simply Radio, Voice of Kiev, Russian Radio, and BBC to name a few, and his sagacious comments on the subject of the polygraph (lie detection) have been read by tens of millions of readers on the pages of numerous magazines, newspapers, and internet publications; among which must be noted Mirror of the Week, Focus, Contracts, Marketing Mix, Business & Security, Gazette a la Kiev, Power of Money, History of Successful Businesses and People, Truth, Status, Facts, New, Ukrainian Truth, Ukraine’s Youth, Journal and Courier (USA), Kyiv Post, PCWEEK Ukrainian Edition, General Director, Khreshchatik, Economic News, Invest Gazette, Voice of Ukraine, Correspondent, Commerce Man, Today, etc. Furthermore, Dr. Andriy Volyk’s name is often seen in the messages of the leading information agencies, such as UNIAN, ITAR-TASS, and others. To a large extent, thanks to Dr. Andriy Volyk, terms such as lie detector, polygraph, polygraph examiner, lie detection, polygraph test and others have become common and are used on a daily basis by Ukrainians nationwide.

Dr. Andriy Volyk has conducted polygraph exams for TV shows and films on numerous politicians, stars, and celebrities, including: Laima Vaikule, Sergey Zverev, Dmitriy Gordon, Egor Benkendorf, Svetlana Loboda, rapper Seryoga, Michail Brodskiy, Konstantin Stogniy, Victor Pavlik, Petya Listerman, Valeriy Harchishin, Dmitriy Shepelev, Arina Domski, Django, Yuriy Falesa, Margarita Sichkar, Evgeniy Zaharov, Monro, duo Alibi, Alexei Zalevskiy, attorney Alexei Reznikov, Vasilisa Frolova, Svetlana Vol’nova, Elena Shoptenko, Maya Migal, Anna Filimonova, Gennadiy Viter, singer Elizabeth, Carolina Ashion, Olga Tsibul’skaya, Alexander Pedan, Dyadya Zhora, Andrey Domanskiy, Vitaliy Galai, Igor Pelyh, Anatoliy Borsiuk, singer Lama, radio anchor Nikolai Matrosov, TV anchor Ruslan Senichkin, TV anchor Oksana Gutseit, Alexander Filatovich, Alexei Vertinskiy, Olga Polyakova, Boris Aprel, Ivan Dorn, Anton Frindlyand, Irena Karpa, Natalia Karpa, Ekaterina Nesterenko, Evgeniy Kazantsev, Sergey Ozeryanskiy, Yuliya Aisina, Alisa Tarabarova, Mark Savin, Vladimir Dantes, singer DIAR, Alexander Ostanin, Mariam Turkmenbaeva, Larisa Shalyapina (Kopenkina), band “Quest Pistols», Larson, Evgeniya Vlasova, Vlada Litovchenko, Valid Arfush, Vladislav Yama, Nikolai Tomenko, and Olga Sumskaya to name a few.

The use of polygraph in law enforcement and human resource practices (pre-employment, periodic, and special polygraph evaluations of individuals) is permitted by Ukrainian laws.